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NOVOTS KMS .: 数据库 .: oracle常用命令


第一章:日志管理 1.forcing log switches sql> alter system switch logfile; 2.forcing checkpoints sql> alter system checkpoint; 3.adding online redo log groups sql> alter database add logfile [group 4] sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m; 4.adding online redo log members sql> alter database add logfile member sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1, sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2; 5.changes the name of the online redo logfile sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log' sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log'; 6.drop online redo log groups sql> alter database drop logfile group 3; 7.drop online redo log members sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log'; 8.clearing online redo log files sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo'; 9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' ' b. sql> execute'oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log'); c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log', sql>; d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log', sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile); e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora'); f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters sql> v$logmnr_logs); g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr; 第二章:表空间管理 1.create tablespaces sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m, sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging] sql> def***t storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0) sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause] 2.locally managed tablespace sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf' sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m; 3.temporary tablespace sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf' sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m; 4.change the storage setting sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m; sql> alter tablespace app_data def***t storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999); 5.taking tablespace offline or online sql> alter tablespace app_data offline; sql> alter tablespace app_data online; 6.read_only tablespace sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write; 7.droping tablespace sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents; 8.enableing automatic extension of data files sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m; 9.change the size fo data files manually sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m; 10.Moving data files: alter tablespace sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf'; 11.moving data files:alter database sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf'; 第三章:表 1.create a table sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....) sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer] sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer] sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache] 2.copy an existing table sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery 3.create temporary table sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay; on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows 4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space) 5.change storage and block utilization parameter sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100); 6.manually allocating extents sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf'); 7.move tablespace sql> alter table employee move tablespace users; 8.deallocate of unused space sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer] 9.truncate a table sql> truncate table table_name; 10.drop a table sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints]; 11.drop a column sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000; alter table table_name drop columns continue; 12.mark a column as unused sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints; alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000; alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000 data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs 第四章:索引 1.creating function-based indexes sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped); 2.create a B-tree index sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer] sql> [logging | nologgi ng] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 sql> maxextents 50); 3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows 4.creating reverse key indexes sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx; 5.create bitmap index sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx; 6.change storage parameter of index sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100); 7.allocating index space sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf'); 8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused; 第五章:约束 1.define constraints as immediate or deferred sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/def***t; set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred; 2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints 3. define constraints while create a table sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx); primary key/unique/references table(column)/check 4.enable constraints sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id; 5.enable constraints sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id; 第六章:LOAD数据 1.loading data using direct_load insert sql> insert into emp nologging sql> select * from emp_old; 2.parallel direct-load insert sql> alter session enable parallel dml; sql> insert into emp nologging sql> select * from emp_old; 3.using sql*loader sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \ sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \ sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true 第七章:reorganizing data 1.using expoty $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y 2.using import $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y 3.transporting a tablespace sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only; $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts triggers=n constraints=n $copy datafile $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2 /sles02.dbf) sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write; 4.checking transport set sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true); 在表transport_set_violations 中查看 s ql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含 第八章: managing password security and resources 1.controlling account lock and password sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock; 2.user_provided password function sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30), old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean 3.create a profile : password setting sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3 sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function sql> password_grace_time 5; 4.altering a profile sql> alter profile def***t failed_login_attempts 3 sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10; 5.drop a profile sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade]; 6.create a profile : resource limit sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2 sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480; 7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost dba_Users,dba_profiles 8. enable resource limits sql> alter system set resource_limit=true; 第九章:Managing users 1.create a user: database authentication sql> create user juncky identified by oracle def***t tablespace users sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|def***t]; 2.change user quota on tablespace sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users; 3.drop a user sql> drop user juncky [cascade]; 4. monitor user view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas 第十章:managing privileges 1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs 2.grant system privilege sql> grant create session,create table to managers; sql> grant create session to scott with admin option; with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role; 3.sysdba and sysoper privileges: sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile, alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database alter database archivelog,restricted session sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until 4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users 5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema 6.revoke system privilege sql> revoke create table from karen; sql> revoke create session from scott; 7.grant object privilege sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public; sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option; 8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs 9.revoke object privilege sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints]; 10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$ 11. protecting the audit trail sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access; 12.statement auditing sql> audit user; 13.privilege auditing sql> audit select any table by summit by access; 14.schema object auditing sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful; 15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts 16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement 第十一章: manager role 1.create roles sql> create role sales_clerk; sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus; sql> create role hr_manager identified externally; 2.modify role sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission; sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally; sql> alter role hr_manager not identified; 3.assigning roles sql> grant sales_clerk to scott; sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager; sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option; 4.establish def***t role sql> alter user scott def***t role hr_clerk,sales_clerk; sql> alter user scott def***t role all; sql> alter user scott def***t role all except hr_clerk; sql> alter user scott def***t role none; 5.enable and disable roles sql> set role hr_clerk; sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission; sql> set role all except sales_clerk; sql> set role none; 6.remove role from user sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott; sql> revoke hr_manager from public; 7.remove role sql> drop role hr_manager; 8.display role information view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles 第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY 1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat 2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size 3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback > v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions 4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog) > shutdown immediate > cp files /backup/ > startup 5.restore to a different location > connect system/manager as sysdba > startup mount > alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf'; > alter database open; 6.recover syntax --recover a mounted database >recover database; >recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf'; >alter database recover database; --recover an opened database >recover tablespace user_data; >recover datafile 2; >alter database recover datafile 2; to apply redo log files automatically >set autorecovery on >recover automatic datafile 4; 8.complete recovery: --method 1(mounted databae) >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf >startup mount >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf; >alter database open; --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile) >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline) >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or >recover tablespace user_data; >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or >alter tablespace user_data online; --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile) >startup mount >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline; >alter database open >copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf >alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' >recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data; >alter tablespace user_data online; --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log) >alter tablespace user_data offline immediate; >alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf'' >recover tablespace user_data; >alter tablespace user_data online 5.perform an open database backup > alter tablespace user_data begin backup; > copy files /backup/ > alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup; > alter system switch logfile; 6.backup a control file > alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp'; > alter database backup controlfile to trace; 7.recovery (noarchivelog mode) > shutdown abort > cp files > startup 8.recovery of file in backup mode >alter database datafile 2 end backup; 9.clearing redo log file >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1; >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile; 10.redo log recovery >alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log' size 1000k; >alter database drop logfile group 1; >alter database open; or >cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log >alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';



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