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NOVOTS KMS .: 其他 .: 用YUM源安装软件

用YUM源安装软件

用yum源安装软件 查询 • yum list #查询所有可用软件包列表 [root@localhost ~]# yum list ··· yum-utils.noarch 1.1.31-45.el7 base zenity.x86_64 3.22.0-1.el7 base zip.x86_64 3.0-11.el7 base zlib.i686 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-devel.i686 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-devel.x86_64 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-static.i686 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-static.x86_64 1.2.7-17.el7 base zsh.x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base zsh-html.x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base zziplib.i686 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib.x86_64 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib-devel.i686 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib-devel.x86_64 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib-utils.x86_64 0.13.62-5.el7 base • yum search 关键字 # 搜索服务器上所有和关键字相关的包 [root@localhost ~]# yum search vim 已加载插件:fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.aliyun.com * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn ========================= N/S matched: vim ========================= protobuf-vim.x86_64 : Vim syntax highlighting for Google Protocol : Buffers descriptions vim-X11.x86_64 : The VIM version of the vi editor for the X Window : System vim-common.x86_64 : The common files needed by any version of the : VIM editor vim-enhanced.x86_64 : A version of the VIM editor which includes : recent enhancements vim-filesystem.x86_64 : VIM filesystem layout vim-minimal.x86_64 : A minimal version of the VIM editor 名称和简介匹配 only,使用“search all”试试。 还有一种搜索的rpm包的方法,使用grep。 yum list |grep '关键字' [root@localhost ~]# yum list |grep 'vim' vim-minimal.x86_64 2:7.4.160-2.el7 @anaconda protobuf-vim.x86_64 2.5.0-8.el7 base vim-X11.x86_64 2:7.4.160-4.el7 base vim-common.x86_64 2:7.4.160-4.el7 base vim-enhanced.x86_64 2:7.4.160-4.el7 base vim-filesystem.x86_64 2:7.4.160-4.el7 base vim-minimal.x86_64 2:7.4.160-4.el7 base 安装 • yum install -y 包名 选项: • -y 自动回答yes • install 安装 [root@localhost ~]# yum install -y zsh.x86_64 已加载插件:fastestmirror base | 3.6 kB 00:00 extras | 3.4 kB 00:00 updates | 3.4 kB 00:00 Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.aliyun.com * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn 正在解决依赖关系 --> 正在检查事务 ---> 软件包 zsh.x86_64.0.5.0.2-28.el7 将被 安装 --> 解决依赖关系完成 依赖关系解决 ==================================================================== Package 架构 版本 源 大小 ==================================================================== 正在安装: zsh x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base 2.4 M 事务概要 ==================================================================== 安装 1 软件包 总下载量:2.4 M 安装大小:5.6 M Downloading packages: zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64.rpm | 2.4 MB 00:00 Running transaction check Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded Running transaction 正在安装 : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64 1/1 验证中 : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64 1/1 已安装: zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7 完毕! 升级 • yum -y update 包名 卸载 • yum -y remove 包名 选项: • remove 卸载 • -y yes #服务器使用最小化安装,用什么软件装什么软件,尽量不卸载 [root@localhost ~]# yum remove -y zsh Failed to set locale, defaulting to C Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7 will be erased --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ==================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size ==================================================================== Removing: zsh x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 @base 5.6 M Transaction Summary ==================================================================== Remove 1 Package Installed size: 5.6 M Downloading packages: Running transaction check Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded Running transaction Erasing : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64 1/1 Verifying : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64 1/1 Removed: zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7 Complete! YUM 软件组管理命令 • yum grouplist 列出所有可用的软件组列表 [root@localhost ~]# yum grouplist 已加载插件:fastestmirror 没有安装组信息文件 Maybe run: yum groups mark convert (see man yum) Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.aliyun.com * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn 可用的环境分组: 最小安装 基础设施服务器 计算节点 文件及打印服务器 基本网页服务器 虚拟化主机 带 GUI 的服务器 GNOME 桌面 KDE Plasma Workspaces 开发及生成工作站 可用组: 传统 UNIX 兼容性 兼容性程序库 图形管理工具 安全性工具 开发工具 控制台互联网工具 智能卡支持 科学记数法支持 系统管理 系统管理工具 完成 使用 英文显示,只需要将语言改为英文就可以了LANG=en [root@localhost ~]# yum grouplist Failed to set locale, defaulting to C Loaded plugins: fastestmirror There is no installed groups file. Maybe run: yum groups mark convert (see man yum) Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.aliyun.com * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn Available Environment Groups: Minimal Install Compute Node Infrastructure Server File and Print Server Basic Web Server Virtualization Host Server with GUI GNOME Desktop KDE Plasma Workspaces Development and Creative Workstation Available Groups: Compatibility Libraries Console Internet Tools Development Tools Graphical Administration Tools Legacy UNIX Compatibility Scientific Support Security Tools Smart Card Support System Administration Tools System Management Done • yum groupinstall 软件组名 安装指定软件组,组名可以由grouplist查询出来 • yum groupremove 软件组名 卸载指定软件组 • yum provides "/*/vim"搜索包含关键字vim的软件包 [root@localhost ~]# yum provides /*/"vim" 已加载插件:fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.aliyun.com * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn base/7/x86_64/filelists_db | 6.9 MB 00:00 extras/7/x86_64/filelists_db | 519 kB 00:00 updates/7/x86_64/filelists_db | 1.3 MB 00:00 cmake-2.8.12.2-2.el7.x86_64 : Cross-platform make system 源 :base 匹配来源: 文件名 :/usr/share/cmake/editors/vim 2:docker-unit-test-1.13.1-53.git774336d.el7.centos.x86_64 : ...: Automates deployment of containerized applications - for ...: running unit tests 源 :extras 匹配来源: 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/v1.10-migrator-c417a6a022c5023c111662e8280f885f6ac259be/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/runc-e9c345b3f906d5dc5e8100b05ce37073a811c74a/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/docker-novolume-plugin-385ec70baac3ef356f868f391c8d7818140fbd44/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/containerd-296f1f80d6c6a83cc625163f863e53d3287328ee/vendor/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 2:docker-unit-test-1.13.1-58.git87f2fab.el7.centos.x86_64 : ...: Automates deployment of containerized applications - for ...: running unit tests 源 :extras 匹配来源: 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/v1.10-migrator-c417a6a022c5023c111662e8280f885f6ac259be/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/runc-e9c345b3f906d5dc5e8100b05ce37073a811c74a/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/docker-novolume-plugin-385ec70baac3ef356f868f391c8d7818140fbd44/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/containerd-296f1f80d6c6a83cc625163f863e53d3287328ee/vendor/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 2:docker-unit-test-1.13.1-63.git94f4240.el7.centos.x86_64 : ...: Automates deployment of containerized applications - for ...: running unit tests 源 :extras 匹配来源: 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/v1.10-migrator-c417a6a022c5023c111662e8280f885f6ac259be/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/runc-e9c345b3f906d5dc5e8100b05ce37073a811c74a/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/docker-novolume-plugin-385ec70baac3ef356f868f391c8d7818140fbd44/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim 文件名 :/var/lib/docker-unit-test/containerd-296f1f80d6c6a83cc625163f863e53d3287328ee/vendor/src/github.com/docker/docker/contrib/syntax/vim git-1.8.3.1-13.el7.x86_64 : Fast Version Control System 源 :base 匹配来源: 文件名 :/usr/share/doc/git-1.8.3.1/contrib/vim 2:vim-common-7.4.160-4.el7.x86_64 : The common files needed by any : version of the VIM editor 源 :base 匹配来源: 文件名 :/usr/share/vim 2:vim-enhanced-7.4.160-4.el7.x86_64 : A version of the VIM editor ...: which includes recent enhancements 源 :base 匹配来源: 文件名 :/usr/bin/vim 使用yum搭建本地yum源 方法一 思路 • 挂载镜像到/mnt 目录 • cp -r /etc/yum.repos.d /etc/yum.repos.d.bak #将 yum.repos.d 这个文件备份一份出来 • rm -rf /etc/yum.repos.d/* • vim /etc/yum.repos.d/dvd.repo #内容如下 [dvd] name=install dvd baseurl=file:///mnt enable=1 gpcheck=0 [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cdrom/ [root@localhost ~]# cp -r /etc/yum.repos.d/ /etc/yum.repos.d.bak [root@localhost ~]# ls /etc/ | grep yum* yum yum.conf yum.repos.d yum.repos.d.bak vim /etc/yum.repos.d/dvd.repo [dvd] name=install dvd baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom ····地址为自己光盘目录挂载点 enable=1 ···· enabled=1 让这个yum源失效 gpgcheck=0 [root@localhost ~]# yum clean all [root@localhost ~]# yum list ······ pygobject3-devel.x86_64 3.22.0-1.el7 dvd pygtk2.x86_64 2.24.0-9.el7 dvd pygtk2-libglade.x86_64 2.24.0-9.el7 dvd pykde4.x86_64 4.10.5-4.el7 dvd pykickstart.noarch 1.99.66.12-1.el7 dvd pyldb.x86_64 1.1.29-1.el7 dvd pyorbit.x86_64 2.24.0-15.el7 dvd pyparsing.noarch 1.5.6-9.el7 dvd pyparted.x86_64 1:3.9-13.el7 dvd pytalloc.x86_64 2.1.9-1.el7 dvd python-IPy.noarch 0.75-6.el7 dvd python-augeas.noarch 0.5.0-2.el7 dvd python-babel.noarch 0.9.6-8.el7 dvd python-backports.x86_64 1.0-8.el7 dvd python-backports-ssl_match_hostname.noarch ······ 搭建本地yum 源方法二 思路 1、挂载光盘 [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cdrom/ 2.使网络yum 源失效 [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ # 进入yum源 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# ls CentOS-Base.repo CentOS-fasttrack.repo CentOS-Vault.repo CentOS-CR.repo CentOS-Media.repo CentOS-Debuginfo.repo CentOS-Sources.repo # 网络yum源生效的文件为CentOS-Base.repo,未防止以后需要使用,不要将其删除,可以更改后缀名使其失效。 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# mv CentOS-Base.repo CentOS-Base.repo.bak [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# ls CentOS-Base.repo.bak CentOS-fasttrack.repo CentOS-Vault.repo CentOS-CR.repo CentOS-Media.repo CentOS-Debuginfo.repo CentOS-Sources.repo # 更改名称后,网络yum源就已经失效了 本地yum源起作用的是CentOS-Media.repo,需要修改这个文件里面的内容 3.使光盘yum源生效 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# vi CentOS-Media.repo # CentOS-Media.repo # # This repo can be used with mounted DVD media, verify the mount point for # CentOS-7. You can use this repo and yum to install items directly off the # DVD ISO that we release. # # To use this repo, put in your DVD and use it with the other repos too: # yum --enablerepo=c7-media [command] # # or for ONLY the media repo, do this: # # yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=c7-media [command] [c7-media] name=CentOS-$releasever - Media baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom/ # file:///media/cdrom/ # file:///media/cdrecorder/ gpgcheck=1 enabled=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum list ······ pygobject3-devel.x86_64 3.22.0-1.el7 c7-media pygtk2.x86_64 2.24.0-9.el7 c7-media pygtk2-libglade.x86_64 2.24.0-9.el7 c7-media pykde4.x86_64 4.10.5-4.el7 c7-media pykickstart.noarch 1.99.66.12-1.el7 c7-media pyldb.x86_64 1.1.29-1.el7 c7-media pyorbit.x86_64 2.24.0-15.el7 c7-media pyparsing.noarch 1.5.6-9.el7 c7-media pyparted.x86_64 1:3.9-13.el7 c7-media pytalloc.x86_64 2.1.9-1.el7 c7-media python-IPy.noarch 0.75-6.el7 c7-media python-augeas.noarch 0.5.0-2.el7 c7-media python-babel.noarch 0.9.6-8.el7 c7-media python-backports.x86_64 1.0-8.el7 c7-media python-backports-ssl_match_hostname.noarch ······ 更换国内yum源 思路 • cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ • rm -f [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# wget http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo 如果删除了CentOS-Base.repo 没有办法使用yum 安装wget 软件包 可以使用curl -O 进行下载 curl -O http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo yum-plugin-versionlock.noarch 1.1.31-45.el7 base yum-rhn-plugin.noarch 2.0.1-10.el7 base yum-updateonboot.noarch 1.1.31-45.el7 base yum-utils.noarch 1.1.31-45.el7 base zenity.x86_64 3.22.0-1.el7 base zip.x86_64 3.0-11.el7 base zlib.i686 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-devel.i686 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-devel.x86_64 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-static.i686 1.2.7-17.el7 base zlib-static.x86_64 1.2.7-17.el7 base zsh.x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base zsh-html.x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base zziplib.i686 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib.x86_64 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib-devel.i686 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib-devel.x86_64 0.13.62-5.el7 base zziplib-utils.x86_64 0.13.62-5.el7 base [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum install -y zsh 已加载插件:fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile 正在解决依赖关系 --> 正在检查事务 ---> 软件包 zsh.x86_64.0.5.0.2-28.el7 将被 安装 --> 解决依赖关系完成 依赖关系解决 ==================================================================== Package 架构 版本 源 大小 ==================================================================== 正在安装: zsh x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base 2.4 M 事务概要 ==================================================================== 安装 1 软件包 总下载量:2.4 M 安装大小:5.6 M Downloading packages: zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64.rpm | 2.4 MB 00:02 Running transaction check Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded Running transaction 正在安装 : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64 1/1 验证中 : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64 1/1 已安装: zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7 完毕! 安装扩展源 • yum install -y epel-release [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum install -y epel-release 已加载插件:fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile 正在解决依赖关系 --> 正在检查事务 ---> 软件包 epel-release.noarch.0.7-11 将被 安装 --> 解决依赖关系完成 依赖关系解决 ==================================================================== Package 架构 版本 源 大小 ==================================================================== 正在安装: epel-release noarch 7-11 extras 15 k 事务概要 ==================================================================== 安装 1 软件包 总下载量:15 k 安装大小:24 k Downloading packages: epel-release-7-11.noarch.rpm | 15 kB 00:00 Running transaction check Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded Running transaction 正在安装 : epel-release-7-11.noarch 1/1 验证中 : epel-release-7-11.noarch 1/1 已安装: epel-release.noarch 0:7-11 完毕! • yum list |grep epel [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum list | grep epel ······ znc-modtcl.x86_64 1.6.6-1.el7 epel zopfli.x86_64 1.0.1-1.el7 epel zsh-lovers.noarch 0.9.0-1.el7 epel zstd.x86_64 1.3.4-1.el7 epel zulucrypt.x86_64 5.0.1-1.el7 epel zulucrypt-console.x86_64 5.0.1-1.el7 epel zulucrypt-devel.x86_64 5.0.1-1.el7 epel zulucrypt-doc.noarch 5.0.1-1.el7 epel zulucrypt-libs.x86_64 5.0.1-1.el7 epel zvbi.x86_64 0.2.35-1.el7 epel zvbi-devel.x86_64 0.2.35-1.el7 epel zvbi-fonts.noarch 0.2.35-1.el7 epel ······ yum下载rpm包 • yum install -y 包名 --downloadonly • ls /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/ • yum install -y 包名 -- downloadonly --downloaddir=路径 • yum reinstall -y 包名 -- downloadonly --downloaddir=路径 重新安装 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum install zsh --downloadonly 已加载插件:fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * epel: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn 正在解决依赖关系 --> 正在检查事务 ---> 软件包 zsh.x86_64.0.5.0.2-28.el7 将被 安装 --> 解决依赖关系完成 依赖关系解决 ==================================================================== Package 架构 版本 源 大小 ==================================================================== 正在安装: zsh x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base 2.4 M 事务概要 ==================================================================== 安装 1 软件包 总下载量:2.4 M 安装大小:5.6 M Background downloading packages, then exiting: zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64.rpm | 2.4 MB 00:02 exiting because "Download Only" specified #默认的下载目录 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# ls /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/base/packages/ glibc-2.17-222.el7.x86_64.rpm glibc-common-2.17-222.el7.x86_64.rpm glibc-devel-2.17-222.el7.x86_64.rpm glibc-headers-2.17-222.el7.x86_64.rpm libmpc-1.0.1-3.el7.x86_64.rpm mpfr-3.1.1-4.el7.x86_64.rpm zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64.rpm #指定下载的目录 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum install zsh --downloadonly --downloaddir=/tmp/ 已加载插件:fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * epel: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn 正在解决依赖关系 --> 正在检查事务 ---> 软件包 zsh.x86_64.0.5.0.2-28.el7 将被 安装 --> 解决依赖关系完成 依赖关系解决 ==================================================================== Package 架构 版本 源 大小 ==================================================================== 正在安装: zsh x86_64 5.0.2-28.el7 base 2.4 M 事务概要 ==================================================================== 安装 1 软件包 总下载量:2.4 M 安装大小:5.6 M Background downloading packages, then exiting: exiting because "Download Only" specified [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# ls /tmp/ zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64.rpm 使yum保留下载的rpm包 可以设置使yum保留已经下载的rpm包,供以后升级或重新安装时使用。 修改/etc/yum.conf即可: • [main] • cachedir=/tmp/ • keepcache=1 • debuglevel=2 [root@localhost ~]# ls /tmp/base/packages/ zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64.rpm 搭建一个局域网http的yum源 1. 先创建一个目录,作为存在rpm包的目录 [root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p /root/data/yumdata 2.拷贝ISO镜像文件中的rpm包到/data/yumdata/ [root@localhost ~]# cp /mnt/cdrom/Packages/*.rpm /data/yumdata/ 3.创建repository 创建repo 的库 • [root@localhost ~]# createrepo /data/yumdata/ #如果rpm包有增加,需要执行 createrepo --update /data/yumdata/ [root@localhost ~]# createrepo /data/yumdata/ Spawning worker 0 with 7308 pkgs Workers Finished Saving Primary metadata Saving file lists metadata Saving other metadata Generating sqlite DBs Sqlite DBs complete 4. 安装nginx,提供http服务 • 安装nginx 需要先安装epel • yum install epel-release • yum install nginx [root@localhost ~]# yum install -y nginx 已加载插件:fastestmirror base | 3.6 kB 00:00 c7-media | 3.6 kB 00:00 epel/x86_64/metalink | 7.0 kB 00:00 extras | 3.4 kB 00:00 updates | 3.4 kB 00:00 Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * epel: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn 软件包 1:nginx-1.12.2-2.el7.x86_64 已安装并且是最新版本 无须任何处理 nginx软件包之前安装过提示已经是最新版本 安装完成后需要更改一下配置文件 [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf server { listen 80 default_server; listen [::]:80 default_server; server_name _; root /data/yumdata; IP 可以访问到rpm包 # Load configuration files for the default server block. include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf; location / { autoindex on; 在这个地方添加 autoindex on;未来提供目录浏览 } error_page 404 /404.html; location = /40x.html { } error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html; [root@localhost ~]# nginx -t 检测nginx 配置语法有没有错误 nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [root@localhost ~]# systemctl start nginx 启动nginx 5. 客户端上配置repo文件 [root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# mkdir bak [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# mv *.repo bak/ [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# ls bak CentOS-Base.repo.bak

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