1.服务级别协议SLA（Service level agreement) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_level_agreement6 S- W; U: X# H2 Q
A service level agreement is a negotiated agreement between two parties wherein one is the customer and the other is the service provider.
The SLA records a common understanding about services, priorities, responsibilities, guarantees, and warranties.
2.服务级别管理 SLM (service level management) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Level_Management
SLM管理需要涉及到服务目录（Service Catalogue）、SLA（Service Level Agreement，服务级别协议）、OLA（Operational Level Agreement，操作级别协议）和UC（Underpinning Contract，支持协议）等关键管理要素。
Service Level Management provides for continual identification, monitoring and review of the levels of IT services specified in the Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Service Level Management ensures that arrangements are in place with internal IT Support-Providers and external suppliers in the form of Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) and Underpinning Contracts (UCs), respectively. The process involves assessing the impact of change upon service quality and SLAs. The service level management process is in close relation with the operational processes to control their activities. The central role of Service Level Management makes it the natural place for metrics to be established and monitored against a benchmark.
Service Level Management is the primary interface with the customer (as opposed to the user serviced by the Service Desk). Service Level Management is responsible for:9 v/ @5 x5 j( A3 Z8 L
- ensuring that the agreed IT services are delivered when and where they are supposed to be
- liaising with Availability Management, Capacity Management, Incident Management and Problem Management to ensure that the required levels and quality of service are achieved within the resources agreed with Financial Management
- producing and maintaining a Service Catalog (a list of standard IT service options and agreements made available to customers)
- ensuring that appropriate IT Service Continuity plans exist to support the business and its continuity requirements.
- The Service Level Manager relies on the other areas of the Service Delivery process to provide the necessary support which ensures the agreed services are provided in a cost-effective, secure and efficient manner.
3.操作级别协议OLA(Operational Level Agreement)4 t% t/ b i2 C3 l4 t; t
操作级别协议用来支持 SLA (service level agreement) 中的服务水平级别的实现,是后台的协议，它定义的服务内容是客户业务的支持服务模块，是制定 SLA 的先决条件之一，它明确了服务提供商的角色和责任，也明确了服务供求双方的责任关系。An operational level agreement (OLA) defines the interdependent relationships among the internal support groups of an organization working to support a service level agreement (SLA). The agreement describes the responsibilities of each internal support group toward other support groups, including the process and time-frame for delivery of their services. The objective of the OLA is to present a clear, concise and measurable description of the service provider's internal support relationships.
OLA is sometimes expanded to other phrases but they all have the same meaning:#_
- organizational level agreement
- operating level agreement
- operations level agreement
4.关键成败因素CSF (Critical Success Factor)
Critical success factors are those few things that must go well to ensure success for a manager or an organization, and, therefore, they represent those managerial or enterprise area, that must be given special and continual attention to bring about high performance. CSFs include issues vital to an organization's current operating activities and to its future success.3
5.关键绩效指标 KPI(Key Performance Indicator)